Architecture of DBMS

 03 Sep  Admin

DBMS architecture will help us understand the components of database system and the relation among them. The architecture of DBMS depends on the computer system on which it runs.

Types of DBMS Architecture

There are three types of DBMS architecture:

1. Single tier architecture :-

         In this type of architecture, the database is readily available on the client machine, any request made by client doesn’t require a network connection to perform the action on the database.

2. Two tier architecture :-

        In two-tier architecture, the Database system is present at the server machine and the DBMS application is present at the client machine, these two machines are connected with each other through a reliable network.Whenever client machine makes a request to access the database present at server using a query language like sql, the server perform the request on the database and returns the result back to the client. 

 3Three tier architecture :-

       In this architecture, another layer is present between the client machine and server machine. In this architecture, the client application doesn’t communicate directly with the database systems present at the server machine, rather the client application communicates with server application and the server application internally communicates with the database system present at the server.

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Advantages of DBMS Over File System

03 Sep  Admin

DBMS vs. File System :-

DBMS File Management System
Multi-user accessIt does not support multi-user access
Design to fulfill the need for small and large businessesIt is only limited to smaller DBMS system.
Remove redundancy and IntegrityRedundancy and Integrity issues
Expensive. But in the long term Total Cost of Ownership is cheapIt’s cheaper
Easy to implement complicated transactionsNo support for complicated transactions
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Database Applications

 03 Sep  Admin

Application Of DBMS  :-
SectorUse of DBMS
BankingFor customer information, account activities, payments, deposits, loans, etc.
AirlinesFor reservations and schedule information.
UniversitiesFor student information, course registrations, colleges and grades.
TelecommunicationIt helps to keep call records, monthly bills, maintaining balances, etc.
FinanceFor storing information about stock, sales, and purchases of financial instruments like stocks and bonds.
SalesUse for storing customer, product & sales information.
ManufacturingIt is used for the management of supply chain and for tracking production of items. Inventories status in warehouses.
HR ManagementFor information about employees, salaries, payroll, deduction, generation of paychecks, etc.
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Introduction of DBMS

 03 Sep  Admin

  • Introduction of DBMS

DBMS stands for Database Management System. We can break it like this DBMS = Database + Management System. Database is a collection of data and Management System is a set of programs to store and retrieve those data. Based on this we can define DBMS like this: DBMS is a collection of inter-related data and set of programs to store & access those data in an easy and effective manner.

Characteristics of DBMS

  • Provides security and removes redundancy
  • Self-describing nature of a database system
  • Insulation between programs and data abstraction
  • Support of multiple views of the data
  • Sharing of data and multiuser transaction processing
  • DBMS allows entities and relations among them to form tables.
  • It follows the ACID concept ( Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability).
  • DBMS supports multi-user environment that allows users to access and manipulate data in parallel.

What is the need of DBMS?

Database systems are basically developed for large amount of data. When dealing with huge amount of data, there are two things that require optimization: Storage of data and retrieval of data.

Purpose of Database Systems

The main purpose of database systems is to manage the data. To manage the data we need to store this data somewhere where we can add new data, delete unused data, update outdated data, retrieve data.

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What is Database Management System DBMS

 02 Sep  Admin

DBMS stands for Database Management System. DBMS is a software package designed to define, manipulate, retrieve and manage data in a database. We can break it like this DBMS = Database + Management System. Database is a collection of data and Management System is a set of programs to store and retrieve those data. It also defines rules to validate and manipulate this data.

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Hierarchical model in DBMS

 02 Sep Admin

In hierarchical database model the data are organized into a tree-like structure where each record is having one parent record and many children.This model structure allows the one-to-one and a one-to-many relationship between two/ various types of data.The main drawback of this model is that, it can have only one to many relationships between nodes.

Hierarchical_Model_Diagram

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DBMS (Database Management System)

 02 Sep  Admin

DBMS is a software package designed to define, manipulate, retrieve and manage data in a database. DBMS stands for Database Management System. We can break it like this DBMS = Database + Management System. Database is a collection of data and Management System is a set of programs to store and retrieve those data. It also defines rules to validate and manipulate this data.

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Operators

C operators are symbols that are used to perform mathematical or logical manipulations. The C programming language is rich with built-in operators. Operators take part in a program for manipulating data and variables and form a part of the mathematical or logical expressions.

Types of operators:-

C programming language offers various types of operators having different functioning capabilities.

  1. Arithmetic Operators
  2. Relational Operators
  3. Logical Operators
  4. Assignment Operators
  5. Increment and Decrement Operators
  6. Conditional Operator
  7. Bitwise Operators
  8. Special Operators

Arithmetic Operators:-

C supports all the basic arithmetic operators. The following table shows all the basic arithmetic operators.

OperatorDescription
+adds two operands
subtract second operands from first
*multiply two operand
/divide numerator by denominator
%remainder of division
++Increment operator – increases integer value by one
Decrement operator – decreases integer value by one

Relational operators:-

The following table shows all relation operators supported by C.

OperatorDescription
==Check if two operand are equal
!=Check if two operand are not equal.
>Check if operand on the left is greater than operand on the right
<Check operand on the left is smaller than right operand
>=check left operand is greater than or equal to right operand
<=Check if operand on left is smaller than or equal to right operand

Logical operators:-

C language supports following 3 logical operators. Suppose a = 1 and b = 0,

OperatorDescriptionExample
&&Logical AND(a && b) is false
||Logical OR(a || b) is true
!Logical NOT(!a) is false

Bitwise operators:-

Bitwise operators perform manipulations of data at bit level. These operators also perform shifting of bits from right to left. Bitwise operators are not applied to float or double(These are datatypes, we will learn about them in the next tutorial).

OperatorDescription
&Bitwise AND
|Bitwise OR
^Bitwise exclusive OR
<<left shift
>>right shift

Assignment Operators:-

Assignment operators supported by C language are as follows.

OperatorDescriptionExample
=assigns values from right side operands to left side operanda=b
+=adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to lefta+=b is same as a=a+b
-=subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operanda-=b is same as a=a-b
*=mutiply left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operanda*=b is same as a=a*b
/=divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operanda/=b is same as a=a/b
%=calculate modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operanda%=b is same as a=a%b

Conditional operator:-

The Conditional Operator in C, also called a Ternary operator, is one of the Operators, which used in the decision-making process. The C Programming Conditional Operator returns the statement depends upon the given expression result.

Example:-

Test_expression ? statement1: statement2

Special operator:-

OperatorDescriptionExample
sizeofReturns the size of an variablesizeof(x) return size of the variable x
&Returns the address of an variable&x ; return address of the variable x
*Pointer to a variable*x ; will be pointer to a variable x
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Operators

 22 Aug Admin

C operators are symbols that are used to perform mathematical or logical manipulations. The C programming language is rich with built-in operators. Operators take part in a program for manipulating data and variables and form a part of the mathematical or logical expressions.

Types of operators:-

C programming language offers various types of operators having different functioning capabilities.

  1. Arithmetic Operators
  2. Relational Operators
  3. Logical Operators
  4. Assignment Operators
  5. Increment and Decrement Operators
  6. Conditional Operator
  7. Bitwise Operators
  8. Special Operators

Arithmetic Operators:-

C supports all the basic arithmetic operators. The following table shows all the basic arithmetic operators.

OperatorDescription
+adds two operands
subtract second operands from first
*multiply two operand
/divide numerator by denominator
%remainder of division
++Increment operator – increases integer value by one
Decrement operator – decreases integer value by one

Relational operators:-

The following table shows all relation operators supported by C.

OperatorDescription
==Check if two operand are equal
!=Check if two operand are not equal.
>Check if operand on the left is greater than operand on the right
<Check operand on the left is smaller than right operand
>=check left operand is greater than or equal to right operand
<=Check if operand on left is smaller than or equal to right operand

Logical operators:-

C language supports following 3 logical operators. Suppose a = 1 and b = 0,

OperatorDescriptionExample
&&Logical AND(a && b) is false
||Logical OR(a || b) is true
!Logical NOT(!a) is false

Bitwise operators:-

Bitwise operators perform manipulations of data at bit level. These operators also perform shifting of bits from right to left. Bitwise operators are not applied to float or double(These are datatypes, we will learn about them in the next tutorial).

OperatorDescription
&Bitwise AND
|Bitwise OR
^Bitwise exclusive OR
<<left shift
>>right shift

Assignment Operators:-

Assignment operators supported by C language are as follows.

OperatorDescriptionExample
=assigns values from right side operands to left side operanda=b
+=adds right operand to the left operand and assign the result to lefta+=b is same as a=a+b
-=subtracts right operand from the left operand and assign the result to left operanda-=b is same as a=a-b
*=mutiply left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operanda*=b is same as a=a*b
/=divides left operand with the right operand and assign the result to left operanda/=b is same as a=a/b
%=calculate modulus using two operands and assign the result to left operanda%=b is same as a=a%b

Conditional operator:-

The Conditional Operator in C, also called a Ternary operator, is one of the Operators, which used in the decision-making process. The C Programming Conditional Operator returns the statement depends upon the given expression result.

Example:-

Test_expression ? statement1: statement2

Special operator:-

OperatorDescriptionExample
sizeofReturns the size of an variablesizeof(x) return size of the variable x
&Returns the address of an variable&x ; return address of the variable x
*Pointer to a variable*x ; will be pointer to a variable x
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Data Types

 22 Aug  Admin

Each variable in C has an associated data type. Each data type requires different amounts of memory and has some specific operations which can be performed over it.Each variable in C has an associated data type. Each data type requires different amounts of memory and has some specific operations which can be performed over it.

Every C compiler supports five primary data types:

voidAs the name suggests, it holds no value and is generally used for specifying the type of function or what it returns. If the function has a void type, it means that the function will not return any value.
intUsed to denote an integer type.
charUsed to denote a character type.
float, doubleUsed to denote a floating point type.
int *, float *, char *Used to denote a pointer type.

Derived Data Types

C supports three derived data types:

Data TypesDescription
ArraysArrays are sequences of data items having homogeneous values. They have adjacent memory locations to store values.
ReferencesFunction pointers allow referencing functions with a particular signature.
PointersThese are powerful C features which are used to access the memory and deal with their addresses.

User defined data type

C allows the feature called type definition which allows programmers to define their identifier that would represent an existing data type. There are three such types:

Data TypesDescription
StructureIt is a package of variables of different types under a single name. This is done to handle data efficiently. “struct” keyword is used to define a structure.
UnionThese allow storing various data types in the same memory location. Programmers can define a union with different members, but only a single member can contain a value at a given time. It is used for
EnumEnumeration is a special data type that consists of integral constants, and each of them is assigned with a specific name. “enum” keyword is used to define the enumerated data type.
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